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Publication Title | Simultaneous Extraction of Water and Essential Oils from Citrus Leaves and Peels Using Liquefied Dimethyl Ether

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Nutrition and Food Sciences

Hoshino et al., J Nutr Food Sci 2014, 4:5

http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.1000301

Research Article Open Access

Simultaneous Extraction of Water and Essential Oils from Citrus Leaves and Peels Using Liquefied Dimethyl Ether

Rintaro Hoshino1, Wahyudiono1, Siti Machmudah1,2, Hideki Kanda1,3* and Motonobu Goto1

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan

2Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus ITS, Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia 3Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan

Abstract

Most of the residues after extracting juice from the citrus fruit are discarded, although they contain valuable substances such as avonoids and essential oils. While most of the citrus avonoids are present in the fruit peel, various valuable substances are also contained in the leaves. Moreover, the leaves and peels of citrus plants contain a large amount of moisture; hence, dewatering is essential for extracting valuable substances. Herein, we used lique ed dimethyl ether (DME) as the extractant for dewatering and extraction of valuable substances. With this process, >70% of the water from the wet samples was removed and valuable substances were isolated from the wet samples. The properties of the original and dewatered samples and the extract were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. While the essential oils could be extracted, it was not possible to extract avonoids by the lique ed DME method.

Keywords: Dimethyl ether; Citrus peel; Citrus leaves; Essential oils; Dewatering; Wet extraction

Introduction

Nearly one million tons of citrus fruits are cultivated in Japan every year; these are used as the raw material for juice processing [1]. However, most of the pomace obtained a er juice processing is disposed of, although it contains valuable substances such as avonoids and essential oils [2]. Waste containing high moisture content is not only di cult to transport during disposal but also creates problems with regard to hygiene because it decomposes easily. Moreover, during the combustion process, the temperature of the combustion gases signi cantly drops inside the combustion furnace owing to the high moisture content of the diapers, and waste gases containing dioxins pollute the environment [3]. e disposal cost of the pomace is expensive because it contains a large amount of water [4]. Essential oils and citrus avonoids are mainly contained in the pomace obtained from the peel and leaves of citrus [5]. ese valuable substances are traded at a high price in the market. Essential oils are used in aromatherapy and high-quality perfumes. Citrus avonoids are used as raw materials for health supplements; these avonoids are also known to have hypolipidemic e ects and apoptosis-inducing behavior in cancer cells [6]. Commercially, essential oils are obtained from the citrus peels by the cold press and steam distillation (SD) method [7,8]. However, the extraction yield by the cold press method is low, because large amounts of valuable oils remain in the residue [9]. On the other hand, pure essential oils can be obtained using the SD method. e distillation step is carried out over a temperature range of 130 to 150°C. e essential oils evaporate with the steam during the distillation process. However, the disadvantage of the SD method is that the quality of the obtained essential oils degrades as a result of the distillation heat [10]. Citrus avonoids cannot be extracted using the SD method because it involves high boiling temperatures [11]. Additionally, a large amount of the residue with high water content is disposed of a er the aforementioned processing methods. erefore, the avonoids are extracted using organic solvents such as menthol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and hexane [12]. However, such extractions are toxic, expensive, and hazardous. Moreover, these methods require several preprocessing steps such as drying, grinding, and homogenizing the raw material [13]. Recently, alternative extraction methods are in demand in the

J Nutr Food Sci

ISSN: 2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal

food industry. Supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and lique ed dimethyl ether (DME) are receiving increased attention as the extraction solvent because of their desirable properties. SC-CO2 extraction has showed high selectivity and the possibility to fractionate the components based on temperature and pressure control [14]. However, it is necessary to use a special apparatus to withstand the high pressure of SC-CO2 [15]. DME has been developed as a synthetic fuel for use in both liquid and gaseous forms [16-18]. In China, DME is synthesized using small-scale coal elds of low commercial value and produced as a fuel at a cost equivalent to that of the imported lique ed petroleum gas. e standard boiling point of DME is -24.8°C and its saturated vapor pressure at 20°C is 0.51 MPa [19]. Because DME has weak hydrogen bonds, water dissolves into the lique ed DME to the extent of 7–8 wt% at room temperature. e quantity of gaseous DME dissolving in water is also low, and it can be easily separated from the water without distillation [20]. Furthermore, lique ed DME has low toxicity, and thus, could be investigated as a prospective solvent for food processing [21,22]. DME di ers from typical ethers such as ethyl ether and does not form peroxides [23]. In addition, lique ed DME can extract not only water (dewatering) from brown coal [24], but also bio-crude (the organic components contained in the vegetal biomass) from biological materials such as microalgae [25]. e DME method exhibited robust dewatering ability and e ciency in removing the oils from the high- moisture orange peels [26]. Moreover, it can be operated at a relatively lower temperature and pressure, and easily separated from the extract at the ambient pressure [27]. In this work, water, essential oils, and avonoids were extracted from the citrus pomace using lique ed

*Corresponding author: Hideki Kanda, Department of Chemical Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan, Tel: 81-52-789- 3392; E-mail: kanda@nuce.nagoya-u.ac.jp

Received June 19, 2014; Accepted August 20, 2014; Published August 23, 2014

Citation: Hoshino R, Wahyudiono, Machmudah S, Kanda H, Goto M (2014) Simultaneous Extraction of Water and Essential Oils from Citrus Leaves and Peels Using Lique ed Dimethyl Ether. J Nutr Food Sci 4: 301. doi: 10.4172/2155- 9600.1000301

Copyright: © 2014 Hoshino R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Volume 4 • Issue 5 • 1000301

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