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Publication Title | Quantitative and Qualitative analysis, and comparative study of essential oil extracted from Nigerian orange, lemon and lime peels

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Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2014

© Copyright 2014 by Authors – Licensee IJASER – Under Creative Commons License 3.0 Research article

www.ijaser.com editorial@ijaser.com

ISSN 2277 – 8442

Quantitative and Qualitative analysis, and comparative study of essential oil extracted from Nigerian orange, lemon and lime peels

1Njoku V.I., 2Evbuomwan B.O.

Department of Chemical Engineering, college of Graduate Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria.

DOI: 10.6088/ijaser.030200024

Abstract: Essential oils are a product obtained from vegetable raw materials and are complex mixtures whose composition may include volatile terpenic compounds. In this study, the relationship between time and amount of essential oil extracted from the citrus peels using steam distillation was shown. Orange peel was shown to contain more amount of essential oil (20ml at 180minutes) than lemon (7ml at 180minutes) and lime (5ml at 180minutes).Using GC-MS analysis, 11, 12 and 24 chemical constituents were identified in orange, lemon and lime essential oil respectively. The 3 main components and their percentage compositions are D-Limonene (54.151%), Pulegone (11.652%) and L-Carvone (2-cyclohexen-1-one) (5.457%) for orange peel essential oil, D-limonene (64%), 2-cyclohexen-1-ol (6.21%) and β-Pinene (3.822%) for lemon peel essential oil, and β-Pinene (23.124%), D-limonene (17.07%) and α-Pinene (10.399%) for lime essential oil. D-limonene was the most prevalent chemical constituent in orange and lemon essential oil, but β-Pinene was the most prevalent in lime peel essential oil. Although lemon contained more D-limonene per unit volume of essential oil, application of these percentages on the volume of essential oil obtained from 370g of the peels at 180minutes showed that orange peel can deliver more D-limonene per unit mass of available peel. Hence, orange peel essential oil is a more economical source of D-limonene in Nigeria.

Keywords: Quantitative, analysis, qualitative, comparative, extracted, essential oil, orange, lemon, lime. 1. Introduction

Essential oil from citrus is a large type of natural flavours and frangrances, which is popularly used in food industries, daily chemical product and health care field (Sheng-min, et al., 2012). The citrus species are a potential source of variable oil which might be utilized for edible and other industrial application (Maria C. et al, 2012). Essential oils are broadly used as pharmaceutical components, in nutritious supplements and for cosmetic industry and aromatherapy (Maria, et al., 2012). Guenther E., 1955, also stated that the oil is also employed in perfumes, toilet waters, eaux de cologne, and in cosmetics to which it impacts a refreshing top note.

Essential oils are a product obtained from vegetable raw materials (Berger, 2007) , and are complex mixtures whose composition may include volatile terpenic compounds, which have the formula (C5H8)n , where the compounds are monoterpenes if n=2, sesquiterpenes when n=3, diterpenes when n=4 etc. (Smith, et al., 2001). These are secondary metabolites in plants (Mazen, 2002) and responsible for the characteristic aroma on the fruit.

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*Corresponding author (e-mail:) 279 Received on February, 2014; Accepted on March 2014; Published on April 2014

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