Infinity Supercritical LLC


Publication Title | Extracting limonene from oranges by steam distillation

Cannabis Search Engine Series

Hops | Oil Extraction | Cultivation | Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction search was updated real-time via Filemaker on:

Hops | Oil Extraction | Cultivation | Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction | Return to Search List

Search Completed | Title | Extracting limonene from oranges by steam distillation
Original File Name Searched: 5150253503.pdf | Google It | Yahoo | Bing



Page Number: 001
Previous Page View | Next Page View

Text | Extracting limonene from oranges by steam distillation | 001



Extracting limonene from oranges

by steam distillation

This experiment demonstrates the extraction of plant oils.

11

The peel of oranges is boiled in water and the oil produced (limonene) distilled in steam

at a temperature just below 100 °C, well below its normal boiling point. The immiscible oil can then be separated. Direct extraction by heating would result in decomposition whereas steam distillation does not destroy the chemicals involved.

The experiment also links for tests for unsaturation, and at a higher level, chirality. Lesson organisation

This experiment can be conducted as a demonstration at secondary level as an introduction to some of the ideas about the extraction of plant oils. It can be used to stimulate discussion about the commercial extraction of plant oils – how science works.

As described this demonstration will take a full lesson of approximately 50 minutes.

This can also be conducted as a class practical at key stages 4 and 5. It can stimulate further discussions as to the process of steam distillation where oil with a boiling point of 176 °C is “distilled” at just under 100 °C.

Limonene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon which can be tested for using bromine water or potassium manganate (VII). At a higher level, it is also a chiral compound and the experiment can lead to a discussion of optical enantiomers.

Apparatus and chemicals

Eye protection •

Grater

Bunsen burner

Heat resistant mat

Tripod and gauze

Oranges, 2

110 °C thermometer Measuring cylinder (100 cm3) Measuring cylinder (50 cm3) Distillation apparatus

250 cm3 round bottomed ask Still head

Thermometer pocket Condenser

Receiver adapter Test tubes and bungs, 3 Dropping pipette Anti-bumping granules

Bromine water, no more than 0.2% v/v (Irritant) Potassium manganate(VII). 0.001M, (Oxidising, Harmful) Cyclohexene (Flammable, Irritant)

Cyclohexane (Flammable, Irritant)

Distilled water, 100 cm3.

Hvordan læger bruger matematik ?

41

Image | Extracting limonene from oranges by steam distillation



extracting-limonene-from-oranges-by-steam-distillation
Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extractor | Oil Extract Using Infinity Supercritical CO2 Extraction System - Botanical CO2 Extraction System - Go to website

Search Engine Contact: greg@infinitysupercritical.com