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Publication Title | Essential Oil of Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisi) Peels and Its Antimicrobial Activities

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American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2013, 4, 1-9 1 Published Online July 2013 (

Essential Oil of Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisi) Peels and Its Antimicrobial Activities

Wahab O. Okunowo*, Olajumoke Oyedeji, Lukman O. Afolabi, Eniola Matanmi

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Email: *

Received May 3rd, 2013; revised June 4th, 2013; accepted June 18th, 2013

Copyright © 2013 Wahab O. Okunowo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Li- cense, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Plants and plant products are continuously being explored in medicine against the increasing number of antibiotic resis- tant organisms. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil of some plants has been demonstrated against a range of or- ganism. This study aimed to determine the chemical constituents and the antimicrobial effects of the oil of grape peels on some clinical isolates. The oil was obtained from the peels by hydrodistillation procedure and analyzed using Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. The in-vitro antimicrobial property of the methanolic, ethanolic and tween 80 mixture of extract was determined by agar well diffusion method against selected clinical bacterial isolates (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, E. coli ATCC 25292, Klebsellia pneumonia, Pseudococcus sp., Salmonella typhmurium, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococus aureus ATCC 29213) and fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Candida albican, and Penicillium chrysogenum). The GC-MS analyses of the oil indicated the amount of the essential oil components was highest with D-Limonene (75.05%), followed by β-myrene (7.25%), α-pinene (2.11%), caryophyllene (1.88%), octanal (1.68) and β-phellandrene (1.18%). Some of the minor components included δ-cadinene (0.89%), copaene (0.82%), methyl phthalate (0.54%), linalool (0.48%) and 3-carene (0.21%). The oil extracts exerted different degrees of inhibitory activity against the organisms. The inhibition of the test isolates was dependent on the dissolution solvent used. Methanolic oil mixture inhibited all bacteria and fungi. Ethanol oil mixture inhibited the test bacteria and C. albicans while, the oil extract dissolved in Tween 80 solution showed no inhibitory activity on the test fungi. This study has shown that grape peels from Nigeria contain some antibiotic principles which may be explored for use in the treatment of certain diseases.

Keywords: Antimicrobial; Bacteria; Essential Oils; Fungi; GC-MS; Grape; Inhibition

1. Introduction

The increasing problems of antibiotic drug resistance by pathogenic organisms in the past few decades and recent- ly have led to the continuous exploration of natural plant products for new antibiotic agents [1-4]. Many of these products are produced in plants as secondary metabolites and often used in plants for defense against microbial attack [4]. Essential oils are a class of such volatile com- pounds produced with inherent antimicrobial properties [4,5]. Essential oils (EOs) obtained from plants are a complex mixture of some compounds such as hydro- carbons, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and have been re- ported to exhibit inhibitory activities against a wide spec- trum food spoilage microorganism [5].

Citrus is one of the most consumed fruits in the world *Corresponding author.

and contain a high amount of useful by-products which include essential oil [6]. It is mostly consumed fresh or used as raw materials for juice and wine [6]. The second largest world produced citrus fruit is grape; with an aver- age of more than 60 million annual production.

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) belongs to the Citrus ge- nus, a taxa of flowering plants in the family Rutaceae [5]. Grape is one of the citrus fruits cultivated and consumed in Nigeria [7]. The yield of grapefruit and oranges juice is about half of the fruit weight thereby generating a very high amount of waste annually [8,9]. Of the 36 metric tonnes of citrus waste produced annually, Florida gen- erates 1.2 million which is sold as feed stock for cattle [10]. Nigeria generates about 0.3 million tonnes with potential to generate more annually [10]. This is one of the major agrowaste constituting a health and environ- mental menace in many streets and market places in

Copyright © 2013 SciRes.


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