<html><head><title>Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extraction and Oil Separation Search Engine Series | Beer Hops | THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF HOP EXTRACTS THROUGH PSEUDOCOMPONENTS 001</title></head><body> <meta name='description' content=' Information Publications | Publications Search Engine | On Demand PDF Document Searches '/> <meta name='keywords' content='beer hops, cannabis-extraction, hops-oil, Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction, Apeks-Supercritical, Eden-Labs, Waters-Supercritical, Cannabidiol-Hemp-Cannabis-Cannabinoid-Cannabis-Sativa-CBD-Marijuana-terpenes' /> <a href="http://www.infinitysupercritical.com"><img src="logo.jpg"alt="Infinity Supercritical LLC" width="265" height="75"></a></p> <BR> Publication Name: THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF HOP EXTRACTS THROUGH PSEUDOCOMPONENTS<BR><p><b>Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extraction and Oil Separation Search Engine Series </b></p><p>Beer Hops search was updated real-time via Filemaker on: </p><script type="text/javascript"> tmonth=new Array("January","February","March","April","May","June","July","August","September","October","November","December"); function GetClock(){ d = new Date(); nday = d.getDay(); nmonth = d.getMonth(); ndate = d.getDate(); nyear = d.getYear(); if(nyear<1000) nyear=nyear+1900; document.getElementById('clockbox').innerHTML=""+tmonth[nmonth]+" "+ndate+", "+nyear+""; setTimeout("GetClock()", 1000); } window.onload=GetClock; </script> <div id="clockbox"></div></p><a href='../index.htm'> Beer Hops Contents List </a><BR><BR><a href="mosaic-ipa-001.htm">Previous Page View</a> | <a href="thermodynamic-properties-hop-extracts-through-pseudocomponents-002.htm">Next Page View</a><p>Search Completed. <BR> Publication Name: THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF HOP EXTRACTS THROUGH PSEUDOCOMPONENTS<BR> Original File Name Searched: N26.pdf<BR> Page Number: 001<BR><BR><TABLE border='1' style=width='1200'><TR><TD valign='top'> <b>PDF Text:</b><BR><BR><span style="" >THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF HOP EXTRACTS THROUGH PSEUDOCOMPONENTS<br/><br/>P. Alessi, F. Vecchione, I. Kikic*<br/><br/>Department of Chemical, Environmental and Raw Materials Engineering (D.I.C.A.M.P.)<br/><br/>University of Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy *E-mail: ireneo.kikic@dicamp.units.it; fax: +39-040-569823.<br/><br/>Hop extraction goes back over 150 years to the early nineteenth century. By far the predominant extracts are &quot;organic&quot; solvent extracts (hexane) and carbon dioxide (CO2) extracts (supercritical and liquid). Supercritical CO2 is more selective than the organic solvents and extracts less of the tannins and waxes and less water and hence water-soluble components. The yield of alpha acids extracted with supercritical CO2 (91 - 94%) is similar to that obtained with the organic solvents (93 - 96%). Following extraction there is the process of solvent removal which for organic solvents involves heating to cause volatilization. Despite this, trace amounts of solvents do remain in the extract. The removal of CO2, however, simply involves a release of pressure to volatilize the CO2. Solvent extracts are increasingly falling out of favor worldwide due to perceived problems with the residues. CO2 extracts on the other hand are gaining favor as they are seen to be produced with a &quot;natural&quot; solvent.<br/><br/>In order to optimize the extraction and to verify the possibility to move towards a continuous process it is necessary to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of the mixtures constituting the hop extracts.<br/><br/>Due to the number of components a lumping procedure must be adopted. In this procedure a reduced number of &ldquo;pseudocomponents&rdquo; is defined and through these components the thermodynamic properties of the complex mixtures can be evaluated. Experimental results of fugacity coefficients at infinite dilution of carbon dioxide and other organic solvents are used in order to determine the numerical values of the binary interaction parameters of the Peng- Robinson equation of state. Using these parameters the performance of carbon dioxide as extractive agent in different temperature and pressure conditions is evaluated.<br/><br/>INTRODUCTION<br/><br/>Hop (Humulus lupulus) is a climbing herbaceous plant belonging to the family of the Cannabaceae in the order of Urticales. Because hops provide taste and flavour to beer, analysis of the composition of varieties of hops is a major issue in the brewing industry.<br/><br/>The lupulin glands in the female cones produce humulones and lupulones as a mixture of so called n-, co and ad-compounds. [1]<br/><br/>Compounds derived from hops have several effects on beer. The resinous compounds, alpha- and beta-acids, give a bitter taste to beer while essential oils are responsible for the hoppy aroma. [2]<br/><br/>Historically the management of hop additions to beer was, for most brewers, a relatively simple process. Whole hops were added to the boiling wort and the spent hops provided a filter bed for the wort as it was passed on to fermentation.<br/><br/>During brewing hops are boiled in the kettle with the wort. This process leads to isomerisation of the humulones to cis/trans pairs of isohumulones which impart their bitter taste to beer and stabilize the beer foam. [1]<br/><br/></span></TD><TD valign='top'><b>PDF Image: THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF HOP EXTRACTS THROUGH PSEUDOCOMPONENTS</b><BR><BR><img src='../images/thermodynamic-properties-hop-extracts-through-pseudocomponents-001.jpg' alt=' Supercritical Fluid Extraction THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF HOP EXTRACTS THROUGH PSEUDOCOMPONENTS Page 001 ' style='margin-left:20px;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;border-color:black;'> </TD></TR></TABLE><table border=1px solid blackstyle =width:50%> <tr> <td><b>Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extractor - Oil Extract Using Infinity Supercritical CO2 Extraction System </b>- Botanical CO2 Extraction System - <a href="http://www.infinitysupercritical.com">Go to website</a> </td> </tr> </tr> </table><p> </p> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-59168860-1', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> <address> <p>Search Engine Contact: <a href="mailto:greg@infinitysupercritical.com?subject="Decarb">greg@infinitysupercritical.com</a></p><p><br /></p> </body></html>