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Int. J. Chem. Sci.: 8(2), 2010, 729-743
- A REVIEW
SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION
G. N. SAPKALE*, S. M. PATIL, U. S. SURWASE and P. K. BHATBHAGE
Department of Pharmacognosy, ASPM,S K. T. Patil College of Pharmacy, Siddharth Nagar, Barshi Road, OSMANABAD – 413501 (M.S.) INDIA
Supercritical fluid extraction is the most effective and efficient way to extract valuable constituent botanicals. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is the process of separating one component (the extractant) from another (the matrix) using supercritical fluids that is CO2 as the extracting solvent. CO2 is the king of extraction solvents for botanicals. Extraction conditions for supercritical CO2 are above the critical temperature of 31°C and critical pressure of 74 bar. Supercritical fluids are highly compressed gases, which have combined properties of gases and liquids in an intriguing manner. Supercritical fluids can lead to reactions, which are difficult or even impossible to achieve in conventional solvents. It is a fast process completed in 10 to 60 minutes. A supercritical fluid can be separated from analyte by simply releasing pressure, leaving almost no trace and yields a pure residue.
Key words: Supercritical fluid extraction, Applications. INTRODUCTION
Extraction can be defined as the removal of soluble material from an insoluble residue, either liquid or solid, by treatment with a liquid solvent. It is therefore, a solution process and depends on the mass transfer phenomena. The controlling factor in the rate of extraction is normally the rate of diffusion of the solute through the liquid boundary layer at the interface.
Extraction involves the separation of medicinally active portions of plant or animal tissue from the inactive or inert components using selective solvents in standard extraction procedures. The products so obtained from plants are relatively impure liquids, semisolids or powders intended only for oral or external use. So extraction continues to be of considerable interest in order to obtain improved yields of drug derived from plant and animal sources.
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