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Supercritical Fluid Application in Food and Bioprocess Technology
K. Khosravi-Darani1 and M. R. Mozafari2
1Department of Food Technology Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology, Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 19395-4741, Tehran, 2Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, 1Iran 2Malaysia
There are several old and new applications for the supercritical fluid (SCF) technology in bioprocessing, including the nonthermal cell inactivation (Dillow et al., 1999; Spilimbergo and Bertucco, 2003; Hong and Pyun, 2001), permeabilization (Aaltonen and Rantakyla, 1991), extraction of fermentation products (Bruno et al., 1993; Hampson and Ashby, 1999; Isenschmid et al., 1995), removal of biostatic agents and organic solvents from fermentation broth, SCF disruption of yeasts (Castor and Hong et al., 1995; Lin and Chen, 1994; Lin et al., 1992; Nakamura et al., 1994) and bacteria (Juhasz et al., 2003; Khosravi- Darani et al., 2004), destruction of industrial waste (Kim and Hong, 2001), fractionatation and purification of biopolymers (Khosravi- Darani et al., 2003), removal of chlorinated compounds from water, and treatment of lignocellulosic materials (Puri, 1983). Some products possibly produced by the SCF technology may be found in processes to obtain vitamin additives, de-alcoholized beverages, de-fat potato chips, and encapsulated liquids. For more information on the other examples, the readers are referred to the literature (King and Bott, 1993; Brunner, 2005; McHugh and Krukonis, 1994; Bertucco and Spilimbergo, 2001). Khosravi-Darani et al. have reviewed all aspects of the supercritical fluid extraction (SCE) in the downstream processing of bioscience (Khosravi-Darani and Vasheghani-Farahani, 2005).
There are also several applications for the SCF technology in food engineering including: extraction of compounds from natural products (the processing of hops, the extraction of caffeine, vanilla, beta-carotene, and vegetable oils), food sterilization, removal of undesired extractable (pesticides residues, hazardous chemicals from fish tissue, oil from dry-milled corn germ), and fractionation of cod liver oil (Bruno et al., 1993). Catalytic reactions in supercritical CO2 have been receiving an increased attention during the last decade (Sarkari et al., 1993).
This chapter has focused on SCF special applications in the field of food biotechnology. The application of SCF is simple, inexpensive, and noninjurious to the structure and function of enzymes (Lin et al., 1992) and protein activities (Kamat et al., 1995; Zheng and Tsao, 1996; Kasche et al., 1988). The supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is the most commonly used
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