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Search Completed | Title | Supercritical Extraction of Cocoa Butter from Cocoa Seed, Using Pure Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Dioxide with Ethanol as Co-Solvent and Ethane
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Text | Supercritical Extraction of Cocoa Butter from Cocoa Seed, Using Pure Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Dioxide with Ethanol as Co-Solvent and Ethane | 001
Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 13 (8): 1010-1015, 2013 ISSN 1990-9233
© IDOSI Publications, 2013
Supercritical Extraction of Cocoa Butter from Cocoa Seed, Using Pure Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Dioxide with Ethanol as Co-Solvent and Ethane
1D. Salajegheh, 1A. Vaziri and 2D. Bastani
1Chemical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran 2Chemical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Abstract: The effective parameters such as particle size, temperature, pressure and extraction time on supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cocoa butter form cocoa seed were studied in order to find the optimum conditions for extraction. Particle size from whole cocoa nibs to one millimeter diameter, extraction temperature from 35°C to 55°C, extraction time from 2 to 8 hours and extraction pressure from 5 to 20 MPa were investigated and optimized. The optimum results (according to the limitation of the apparatus) of 5.2% extraction efficiency, suggests that pure CO2 is not a suitable solvent for extraction of cocoa butter in the investigated range of parameters and therefore the use of a co-solvent or an entirely different solvent is indicated. Ethanol was used as co-solvent from 2% to 10% by weight and could increase the efficiency of extraction to a maximum of 16 percent, which is slightly better than pure CO2, but not good enough to form a basis for an industrial process. Using pure ethane as solvent, we achieved 53% extraction efficiency in a single stage extraction, under the optimum conditions allowed by the limitations of our apparatus.
Key words: Supercritical CO2 Efficiency Temperature pressure Cocoa Ethane Ethanol
Cocoa butter is a valuable ingredient in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, health and other industries. It consists of three fatty acids: palmitic, stearic (saturated acids) and oleic (unsaturated acid). Physical properties of cocoa butter are dependant on the relative abundance of these acids in the sample. About 50% by weight of cocoa seed is cocoa butter, which at present is extracted using various methods such as mechanical extraction or solvent extraction using hexane [1, 2].
Eliminating chemical residues, decreasing negative environmental effects of solvents, lower energy requirements, better safety and quality in food processes has been a driving force in using supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide as extraction solvent [3,4].
In 1993 supercritical carbon dioxide was used for extraction of pepper oil  and from then on it has been used in many extraction processes such as caffeine from Coffee , cholesterol from cow brain, beef and egg , essential oils from basil  and cocoa butter from cocoa nibs . In 1995 Hung et al.  could extract cholesterol
with 70 percent yield by supercritical carbon dioxide. Later in 2001, Wu, et al.  achieved even a better extraction yield by optimizing pressure and temperature (55°C and 36 Mpa). Although the most common supercritical fluid is pure or modified carbon dioxide because of its low critical temperature, inertness, non-toxicity and low price, nevertheless in some cases such as polar ingredients other alternative compounds, such as nitrous oxide, ethane and water, possess critical properties that can give better results of extraction yield. D.A Saldana et al.  found that supercritical carbon dioxide without any co- solvent could not extract theobromine from cocoa seed in a suitable yield. Sh. Li, S. Hartland  showed that it is difficult to extract either xanthines or cocoa butter from cocoa nibs with CO2 alone. However, the addition of polar co-solvent ethanol greatly enhances their solubility. R. S. Mohamed et al.  showed that using ethanol or isopropanol as co- solvent with supercritical carbon dioxide will increase the yield of extraction. Other n- alkanols also have been used as co-solvent with supercritical carbon dioxide [15, 16] because of their polar properties.
Corresponding Author: Dariush Salajegheh, 9 0, Bustan 7th, Pasdaran Avenue, Tehran, Iran, Postal Code: 1666714373. Tel: +98(21)22305497, Cell: +98(912)2400646.
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