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The 4th International Symposium - Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles September 9-10, 2014, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
INITIAL TEST RESULTS OF A MEGAWATT-CLASS SUPERCRITICAL CO2 HEAT ENGINE Timothy J. Held
Chief Technology Officer
Echogen Power Systems, LLC Akron, Ohio email@example.com
Timothy Held is the Chief Technology Officer at Echogen Power Systems. He joined Echogen in October 2008, where he leads the development of their commercial Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle engines. Previously, he was with GE Aviation for 13 years, where he led the Commercial Engine Combustor and Industrial Aeroderivative Combustor Aero Design groups, and was the technical leader for alternate fuels research and evaluation. Dr. Held received his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1993.
The first megawatt-class, commercial-scale supercritical CO2 heat engine, the EPS100, is undergoing validation testing. The individual subcomponents have been modeled and tested, and their performance relative to pre-test predictions has been evaluated. A model of the full system has also been created, and once the measured flow rates of the turbomachinery are used to adjust the relevant flow coefficients, the model compares well to the measured state points of the system.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) thermodynamic power cycles have been studied in significant detail for numerous applications, including nuclear power conversion (Dostal, et al., 2004), concentrated solar power (Seidel, 2010; Turchi, et al., 2013), waste and exhaust heat recovery (Persichilli, et al., 2012; Walnum, et al., 2013), and oxyfuel combustion cycles for primary power (Allam, et al., 2014). Many of these studies have primarily focused on theoretical cycle development, although significant advances have been made in laboratory-scale experimental systems (Wright, et al., 2010) (Kimball, 2011). Note that the references given are exemplary and are not intended to be a comprehensive review of previous work.
Echogen Power Systems, LLC has been developing commercial-scale sCO2 cycles and systems
specifically for moderate temperature thermal power conversion, including industrial waste heat recovery
(WHR) and exhaust heat recovery (EHR) applications. These applications are characterized by heat
𝑄 = 𝑤 (h − h ), where 𝑤 is the mass flow rate of the thermal medium, h is the 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑐𝑒
source temperatures in the 300 to 600°C range, and heat that is in the form of sensible enthalpy (that is,
enthalpy of the heat source at the inlet of the main heat exchanger, and h𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑎𝑙 is the unrecovered enthalpy from the source). The unrecovered enthalpy is that which cannot be recovered from the source, due to cycle limitations, technical limitations (e.g., a minimum allowable stack temperature to avoid condensation in the exhaust), or economic factors. The residual enthalpy is permanently lost to the energy conversion process, generally in the form of thermal energy in the exhaust.
This situation stands in contrast to nuclear or concentrated solar power (CSP) applications, in which the
designed to maximize power output by simultaneously achieving high thermodynamic efficiency (𝑊 /𝑄), 𝑜𝑢𝑡
residual enthalpy is not lost, but is recycled back to the heat source. Therefore, heat recovery cycles are
and minimizing the unrecovered enthalpy to the greatest allowable extent. As a result, for the same heat
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