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CHEMISTRY

Food Processing by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Review

Omprakash H Nautiyal*

Abstract

Keywords: Food processing; SCCO2; Caffeine; Bio processing; Palm kernel oil

Cronicon

OPEN ACCESS

Department of Organic Chemistry, Haramaya University, Ethiopia

*Corresponding Author: Omprakash H Nautiyal, Professor and Researcher, 102, Shubh Building, Shivalik II, Canal Road, Chhani Jakat Naka, Vadodara 390024, Gujarat, India.

Received: September 21, 2015; Published: January 09, 2016

Supercritical fluid extraction technology employing CO

cessing and hence many food and their ingredients important from the health point of view for combating various health issues have been attempted by many researchers to be investigated by this process. This review covers the extraction of ca eine, vitamin E, wine and beer, defatting, bio processing and response surface plot of the extraction has been found to be an important tool to monitor the progress of extraction with regards to pressure, temperature and yield of the bioactive contents of the foods. Garcinia mangostana L. active components and fractionation of corn bran oil are also excellent investigations being reviewed along with palm kernel oil comparatively super oil in comparison to conventional extraction methods.

2

as an extract ant being the most greener technology in the area of food pro-

Carbon dioxide is gaining popularity among co ee manufacturers looking to move away from some of the classic deca einating sol-

Introduction

vents of the past, many of which have led to public rebellion because of real or perceived dangers related to their use in food preparation.

SupercriticalCO isforcedthroughthegreenco eebeanswhicharethensprayedwithwaterathighpressuretoremovetheca eine.The 2

ca eine can then be isolated for resale (e.g. to the pharmaceutical industry or to beverage manufacturers) the water is passed through activated charcoal filters or by distillation, crystallization or reverse osmosis. Supercritical carbon dioxide is employed to remove organic chloride pesticides and metals from agricultural crops without adulterating the desired constituents from the plant matter in the herbal supplement industry (Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, and China).

Supercritical carbon dioxide can also be used as a more environmentally friendly solvent for dry cleaning as compared to more tra- ditional solvents such as hydrocarbons and percholroethylene. Supercritical carbon dioxide is used as the extraction solvent for creation of essential oils and other herbal distillation. Its main advantages over solvents such as hexane and acetone in this process are that it is non-toxic and non-flammable. Furthermore, separation of the reaction components from the starting material is much simpler than with traditional organic solvents, merely by allowing it to evaporate into the air or recycling it by condensation into a cold recovery vessel. Its advantage over steam distillation is that it is used at a lower temperature, which can separate the plant waxes from the oils.

In laboratories, supercritical carbon dioxide is used as an extraction solvent, e.g., in determination of total recoverable hydrocarbons from soils, sediments, fly-ash, and other media, and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and solid wastes. Supercrit- ical fluid extraction has also been used in determination of hydrocarbon components in water. Processes which use supercritical carbon dioxide to produce micro and nano scale particles, often for pharmaceuticals uses, are currently being developed. The gas and solvents processes, rapid expansion of supercritical solutions, and supercritical ant solvent precipitation (as well as several related methods) have been shown to process a variety of substances into particles. Recent studies have proved SC-CO2 is an e ective alternative for terminal

Citation: Omprakash H Nautiyal. “Food Processing by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Review”. EC Chemistry 2.1 (2016): 111-135.

Review Article

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