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Text | Extraction of Oil from Canola Seeds With Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Experimental and Modeling | 001
Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2010 Vol II WCECS 2010, October 20-22, 2010, San Francisco, USA
Extraction of Oil from Canola Seeds With Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Experimental and Modeling
Soroush Zarinabadi*1, Riyaz Kharrat2, Ali Vaziri Yazdi3
Abstract— In this work extraction oil from canola (Brassica Napus) seeds with supercritical CO2 extraction at pressure of 1500 to 2750 Psi, temperature of 308 to 333 k, and particles size 0.08 to 0.2 mm in flow rate 5 Lit/hr was investigated in a bench scale apparatus. The extraction was modeled by the sovova extended lack’s model. The fluid phase mass transfer coefficient (kf), solid phase mass transfer coefficient (ks), and hardly accessible solute (xk) were just able parameter of Models. The broken and intact cells model fit the experimental data, quite well, showing the applicability of the model to the supercritical extraction system studied here.
Keywords: supercritical fluid extraction, canola oil, mathematical modeling, sovova model.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from seed is an alternative process to solvent extraction, hydro distillation and steam distillation because of certain advantage of SC-CO2 with low critical temperature. The extraction of vegetable oils using supercritical carbon dioxide has been studied as a potential alternative to the current industrial process of expeller pressing, prepress solvent extraction and straight liquid solvent extraction.
Hexane is widely used as a solvent in the processing of vegetables' oils; however, the limitation of this extraction method caused the development of alternative extraction procedures such as supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide. This solvent has some advantages including non toxity; non explosive, non flammability, low cost, availability and ease of being removed from extract oils. Compared to the liquid extraction, the investment costs are higher yet due to simple solvent regeneration, the operation costs are low.
SFE of seed oil has been studied by several works (Brunner, 1985; Goodarznia, & Bikini, 1998).
Mathematical models used for extraction of solute from natural matrixes are classified as  empirical models (Esquivel, 1999; McHugh & Krakens, 1986),  models based on heat transfer analogue (Mgyesy, 1993; Nayyar, 1992),  models based.
* Corresponding author. PhD Student of Chemical Engineering. (Corresponding author to provide phone: +989166523309; fax: +986113329193; e-mail: zarinabadi@ yahoo.com).
1- Islamic Azad University- Science & Research Branch – Tehran, Iran. (e-mail: zarinabadi@ yahoo.com).
2-Petroleum University of Technology-Tehran, Iran (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
3- Islamic Azad University- Science & Research Branch – Tehran, Iran (e-mail: email@example.com).
ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)
On differential mass balance (Nolting, 1988; Papamichail et al., 2000; Reversion, 1993), the scale-up of the equipment and the evaluation of the cost of a process cannot be done without mass transfer rate data in a convenient form.
II. Material and methods
For taking the oil extract out of Canola seeds by supercritical fluid, a thermodynamic machine is required to extract the high pressure. The designed method of SCFE has been presented by different researchers such as Van Leer, Paulaititis, Kurnik, Hollow, Red Krukonis, Eckert and Johnson, and Praunits , , . In this research, this pilot can be used for separation and extraction of oil out of canola seeds using SCFE laboratory pilot. As it can be seen in the Fig (1), this system can function in static and dynamic conditions. In this system two specially designed Transfer Vessels are used to provide system pressure using Nitrogen gas. The possibility of establishing of flow of Co2 gas in the machine in two separate, different directions by fixing the existing valve in the machine, are the characteristics of the system. The extraction vessels are made of stainless steel like other parts of the system. It also resists 10000 Psi pressure.
The container has a side glass made of silicon material, and can withstand high pressures. Therefore, seeing the contents of internal compartment and the process of formation of fluids by machine is made possible. The ability of the designed pump for rotating the supercritical fluid within the system is another unique feature of this machine in comparisontootherdevices.Themechanicalpartthispump are designed and made manually and has the ability of two-phase fluid in thermal range up to 100 degrees Celsius and with Flow Rate between 2 liters to 8 liters regardless of creation of Cavitations in the system, can be tuned by operator. This device uses air bath system to provide temperature. The designed air bath is able to provide temperature of 100 degrees Celsius uniformly.
III. Mathematical and Modeling
The broken and intact cells model was employed for correlating the experimental data (Papamichail et al., 2000; Reversion, 1993). This model based on differential mass balance equation in a fixed bed. Assuming plug flow and negligible axial dispersion, the pressure and temperature and bed void fraction (ε) are constant during the extraction in the bed, the solute accumulation in the solvent is negligible. In this model the extraction process is divided into three periods.
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