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Publication Title | Extraction and Microextraction Techniques for the Determination of Compounds from Saffron

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Canadian Chemical Transactions

Ca

ISSN 2291-6458 (Print), ISSN 2291-6466 (Online)

Year 2014 | Volume 2 | Issue 2 | Page 221-247

Review DOI:10.13179/canchemtrans.2014.02.02.0097 Extraction and Microextraction Techniques for the Determination of Compounds from Saffron

Somayeh Heydari* and Gholam Hossein Haghayegh

Faculty of Agriculture, Higher Education Complex of Torbat-e Jam, Torbat-e Jam, Iran

*Corresponding Author, E-mail: so_heydari_83@yahoo.com

Received: February 23, 2014 Revised: March 25, 2014 Accepted: March 27, 2014 Published: March 28, 2014

Abstract: Saffron is the most expensive spice used in industry, with different uses as drug, textile dye and culinary adjunct. It is mainly valued as a food additive for tasting, flavoring and coloring. Thus, understanding the composition of Saffron matrix has gained increased attention in recent years. Since Saffron matrix is very complex, the extraction, separation and quantitation of these chemicals are challenging. The present review article focuses on the extraction and microextraction techniques used in the determination of compounds (such as crocetin esters, picrocrocin and safranal, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include naphthalene, fluorene, anthracene and phenanthrene, inorganic contaminants, the volatile compounds include isophorone related compounds and lipophilic carotenoids, etc) from saffron samples. The extraction techniques include: solvent based extraction technique, steam distillation, ultrasound-assisted extraction, membrane processes, supercritical fluid extraction and solid phase extraction. The microextraction techniques include: solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and liquid phase microextraction (LPME). In the present review article have been formulated future trends in extraction and microextraction for the determination of compounds from saffron.

Keywords: Extraction; Microextraction; Saffron; Food Additive; Spice

1. INTRODUCTION

Since ancient times saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma) is being used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food preparations, as a perfume, dye or ink. Its traditional medicinal use has been reported [1–6]. Advanced pharmacological studies have verified its antitumor effects [7], free radical scavenging properties [8], and hypolipaemic effects [9]. It is useful in neurodegenerative disorders accompanying memory impairment [10]. All allies of genus Crocus are diploid. However, C. sativus is an exception. It is triploid in genetic makeup (2n × 3X= 24). Meiosis is highly erratic, resulting in unbalanced or sterile gametes with no seed formation [11]. This affects saffron cultivation, resulting in its high cost (the world’s most expensive spice). Due to its high cost, saffron is also prone to adulteration by different means [12– 14].

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