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Search Completed | Title | Effect of Operating Conditions on Static/Dynamic Extraction of Peanut Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
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Effect of Operating Conditions on Static/Dynamic Extraction of Peanut Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
MEGAN MATRICARDI, ROBERT HESKETH, and STEPHANIE FARRELL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
GLASSBORO, NJ 08012
Supercritical fluid extraction was successfully used to extract peanut oil from peanuts at temperatures between 40 and 80 °C and pressures of 5000-7000 psi. Static/dynamic cycling was used with a 10 minute static soak time, followed by a 10 minute dynamic interval. The overall extraction time was held constant at 3 hours. Peanut oil yield was determined gravimetrically. The crossover phenomenon was observed with the crossover pressure occurring at 6000 psi. Above the crossover pressure, an isobaric increase in temperature has a positive effect on the extraction yield, while below the crossover pressure an increase in temperature resulted in a decrease in oil yield. Yields between static/dynamic cycling and continuous runs were comparable, suggesting CO2 usage could be reduced by half by static/dynamic cycling, creating a cost effective, greener process.
Supercritical fluid extraction has emerged as an attractive separation technique for the food and pharmaceutical industries due to a growing demand for “natural” processes that do not introduce any residual organic chemicals. Supercritical CO2 is by far the most commonly used supercritical fluid. The unique solvent properties of supercritical CO2 have made it a desirable compound for separating antioxidants, pigments, flavors, fragrances, fatty acids, and essential oils from plant and animal materials. In the supercritical state, CO2 behaves as a lipophillic solvent and so, is able to extract most nonpolar solutes. Separation of the CO2 from the extract is simple and nearly instantaneous; leaving no solvent residue in the extract, as would be typical with organic solvent extraction. Unlike liquid solvents, the solving power of supercritical CO2 can be easily adjusted by slight changes in the temperature and pressure, making it possible to extract particular compounds of interest. In addition, CO2 is inexpensive, available in high purity; FDA approved, and is generally regarded as a safe compound (GRAS). CO2 is also desirable for compounds that are sensitive to extreme conditions because it has a relatively low critical point, with a critical temperature of 31°C and a critical pressure of 1072 psi.
Supercritical fluids have unique solvent properties that are similar to both gases and liquids. Near liquid densities allow increased probability for interactions between the CO2 and the substrate, similar to a liquid solvent . The gas-like diffusivities of supercritical fluids are typically one to two orders of magnitude greater than liquids, allowing for exceptional mass transfer properties . Moreover, near zero surface tension as well as low viscosities similar to gases, allow supercritical fluids to easily penetrate a microporous
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