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III Analytical Methods
III.1 Outline of chemical analysis in the environment
III.1.1 Analytical order of chemicals in the environmental samples
In order to be able to determine very small amounts (very low concentrations) of chemicals in the environment, it is necessary to follow a series of operations :
1) isolation (extraction and separation) of the target chemicals from sample matrix (air, water, sediment, living things, etc.).
2) separation and purification of the target chemical from co-extracted, non-target chemicals (sample clean-up).
3) sample concentration.
4) measurement by highly selective and sensitive analytical equipment, such as gas
chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Occasionally it is also necessary to derivatise (chemically modify) non-volatile and heat degradable target chemicals prior to analysis by the two most commonly used instrumental methods in environmental analysis, GC or GC/MS.
The following sections describe this series of analytical operations in more detail, and introduce some of the main analytical methods for environmental pollutants.
III.1.2 Sample preparation methods III.1.2.1 Extraction / separation methods
A. Water samples
a) Selection of extraction methods
It is possible to categorise chemical substances and their solubility in water based on simple
physico-chemical characteristics, such as their molecular weight, boiling point, and polarity (Figure III-1-1). Methods for isolating chemicals from water based on these broad chemical categories are shown in Figure III-1-2.
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III Analytical Method
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