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Text | A Review on Supercritical Fluid Extraction as New Analytical Method | 001
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 4 (4): 345-353, 2008 ISSN 1553-3468
© 2008 Science Publications
A Review on Supercritical Fluid Extraction as New Analytical Method
1Abbas, K.A., 1A. Mohamed, 1A.S. Abdulamir and 2H.A. Abas 1Department of Food Technology, Faculty Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia
2Department of English, Faculty of Arts, University of Imam Al-sadiq, Iraq
Abstract: This review study summarized the Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) as new analytical method. The advantage and disadvantage of CO2 (SC-CO2 )as well as special applications of SFE in food processing such as removal of fat from food, enrichment of vitamin E from natural sources, removal of alcohol from wine and beer, encapsulation of liquids for engineering solid products and extraction and characterization of functional compounds were also highlighted. The study also covered the application of SFE in food safety such as rapid analysis for fat content, rapid analysis for pesticides in foods as well as the recent applications of SFE in food such as supercritical particle formation and nan particle formation and ssupercritical drying. The outcome finding confirmed that SFE was found to be advance, fast, reliable, clean and cheap methods for routine food analysis.
Key words: Supercritical fluid, applications, features INTRODUCTION
SFE is used on a large scale for the extraction of some food grade and essential oils and pharmaceutical products from plants. It is relatively rapid because of the low viscosities and high diffusivities associated with supercritical fluids. The extraction can be selective to some extent by controlling the density of the medium and the extracted material is easily recovered by simply depressurizing, allowing the supercritical fluid to return to gas phase and evaporate leaving no or little solvent residues. However, carbon dioxide is the most common supercritical solvent.
Since the end of the 1970s, supercritical fluids has been used to isolate natural products, but for a long time the applications concentrated on only few products. Now the development of processes and equipment is beginning to pay off and industries are getting more and more interested in supercritical techniques.
In SF the physicochemical properties of a given fluid, such as density, diffusivity, dielectric constant and viscosity can be easily controlled by changing the pressure or the temperature without ever crossing phase boundaries. The phase diagram of a single substance can be seen in Fig. 1.
The dissolving power of a supercritical fluid depends on its density, which unlike that of liquid solvents is highly adjustable by changing pressure or
temperature. Especially in the vicinity of the critical point a small isothermal raise in pressure increases the fluid density remarkably while the effect diminishes with increasing distance from the critical values. Thus, the solvent strength of a fluid can be controlled more easily than that of a liquid solvent. Recently, the supercritical fluid has approved higher diffusion coefficient and lower viscosity and surface tension than a liquid solvent, which leads to a more favorable mass transfer.
The demand for new analytical techniques in food and environmental sciences is strongly related to the higher demand of information on processing, quality control, adulteration, contamination, environmental and food regulations and the need for faster, more powerful, cleaner and cheaper analytical procedures are required by chemists, regulatory agencies and quality control laboratories to meet these demands can be achieved by SFE. Thus, this review paper has been justified.
Properties and fundamentals of supercritical fluids Solvent strength: The density of a supercritical fluid is extremely sensitive to minor changes in temperature and pressure near the critical point. The densities of the fluids are closer to that of organic liquids but the solubility of solids can be 3-10 orders of magnitude higher. The solvent strength of a fluid can be expressed by the solubility parameter, which is the square root of the cohesive energy density and is defined rigorously
Corresponding Author: Abbas, K.A., Department of Food Technology, Faculty Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia
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